FEATURES: · Control systems, automation + systems engineering · Flow measurement + instrumentation
· Hazardous areas + safety · Transformers + substations
ON THE COVER
Revolution is not an event, but a process
A nother year has come and gone … and what a year it has been. During the course of 2018 we received some very positive feedback regarding our Face Value interviews and, I must say, we have had enormous enjoyment in get- ting to know some of our authors better this way. It is fascinating to me that so many people find it easier to write an article than to be seen at the end of a camera lens. I completely understand that. Yet, writing an article generates its own level of angst as one agonises about how best to say something – or even as one begins to doubt the veracity of what is being said. On camera, however, it is passion for the subject that emerges, and I think it is passion that drives us all, and ensures that those watching us speak are convinced by what we say. Between our editor, Fiona Mosca, and myself, we aim to increase the number of Face Value interviews we do next year, and really chase our authors to get them on camera. So brace yourselves. But what of the year then? I think most of us entered 2018 with a renewed sense of hope, and gradually found ourselves more and more disappointed at very slow developments when it came to decisive leadership and a clear direction for the country. And now, as we reach the end of the year, we look about at so many of our crit- ical industries and remain a little fearful of what may emerge that could affect them still more negatively. It is all rather disqui- eting, even though many within the indus- try did identify possible emerging issues from early on.
FEATURES: · Control systems, automation+ systems engineering · Flowmeasurement+ instrumentation
This year, although I have engaged with businesses that have only just managed to maintain the ship on the water, I know of others within our industry that have ex- ceeded their most ambitious targets. And, if we look to the very core of our indus- try we will recognise that it is made up of some of the most remarkable, and highly competent people. They are there – and therein lies our future. I have often commented on the fact that, the more I engage with young South Africans, the more confident I become in our future. Make no mistake – it will be bright. As we begin to close 2018, may I wish you and your families well over the Festive Season, and may you return to the office refreshed and rearing to go. And let me thank our team – our Editor, Fiona Mosca, and the Advertising staff of Helen Couvaras and Heidi Jandrell, the layout artist, Adel JvR Bothma and our Publisher, Karen Grant. Thanks to the team for continuing to ensure that Electricity + Control provides the best information to help you find the best solution to your plant challenges.
ECDriveS ® stands for Electronically Commutated Drive System, a brushless DC gear motor. But ECDriveS ® also stands for ‘easy drive’… the simple, efficient and cost-cutting drive solution for roller conveyors from SEW EURODRIVE. (Read more on page 9).
Editor: Design & Layout: Advertising Managers:
Fiona Mosca Adél JvR Bothma Helen Couvaras Heidi Jandrell Karen Smith Karen Grant Wilhelm du Plessis Ian Jandrell
i-Automation , OEE and the smart connected factory
Peter Middleton, MechChem Africa
Addressing delegates at Omron’s recent Innovation Conference held at the CSIR, Driaan Coetzer, Field Application Engineer and Product Manager for Control and Vis- ualisation, opened proceedings with a presentation on i-Automation, overall equip- ment effectiveness (OEE) and Omron’s vision for the smart factory.
1. Machines can be collabo- ratively connected to other machines to maximise production efficiencies and minimise bottlenecking. 2. Built-in intelligence ena- bles them to make auton- omous and cooperative decisions. 1 2
W hat is a smart factory? According to Coetzer, until recently, everything we have been doing since the 1970s falls under the term Industry 3.0. Now the talk is of a fourth industrial revolution, Industry 4.0. But, he asked, do people want this, or are all of us simply looking for better ways of doing what we have al- ways done? Omron Industrial Automation has come up with the term i-Automation to help simplify and clarify the new technologies and capabilities associated with smart factories. The phrase includes three ‘i’s that describe the key features of the smart factory: integrated; intelligent; and interactive.These are the three pillars on which Omron believes smart facto- ries will be built. In this complex environment, said Coetzer, no- body can claim to have the single solution anymore. Omron has produced the very first controller with embedded artificial intelligence (AI), but even this is only a small part of the bigger smart factory picture. According to Coetzer, the fourth industrial revo- lution is pushing us into providing more than simply smart products, automated production lines and in- telligent SCADA systems that can monitor and log progress being made. The smart factory is way big- ger than the sum of all of its individual equipment systems. The first ‘i’, integration, is about the connection between automated production processes and IT systems, getting information from the shop floor and into ‘the cloud’ – which is really just a server somewhere – where it can be processed and an- alysed. The results can then be fed back, either directly into production processes or to operation managers – and they can also be used in a host of benchmarking and reporting processes.
Essentially, the integration ‘i’ is about integrating machine automation and corporate IT, generating and collecting large amounts of relevant, real-time data for meaningful and useful analysis. In other words, the seamless integration of technologies through advanced control and data to improve ma- chine and process performance and accuracy. The second ‘i’ in i-Automation is for intelligent, which suggests that the way we do things is no longer reactive. By using data histories of the past, it becomes possible to be predictive and proactive in the way we respond to events in the factory. Smart factories also demonstrate the use of in- telligent data analysis and evaluation capabilities to realise predictive maintenance, process improve- ments, customisation, serialisation, traceability and energy efficiency, along with waste reduction. We have the millennial generation to thank for the last point: they are very concerned about the environ- ment, the better management of waste and the re- duced use of scarce resources. Waste is becoming a huge modern business area, said Coetzer. Interactive is Omron’s the third ‘i’ and it empha- sises machine-to-human interactions. Omron’s new robot collaboration with TM is producing robots such as the TM5/12/14, which enables machines to work with people safely and productively. Enhanc- ing the interaction between humans and machines combines the intuitive, flexible, knowledgeable and adaptive capabilities of humans with the repeata- bility, accuracy, power, speed, autonomy and pro- ductivity of machines.This all comes together in the integrated collaborative factory. This, said Coetzer, is what we are striving for. Machines can be collaboratively connected to other machines to maximise production efficien- cies and minimise bottlenecking, for example. Built-
Omron’s new robot
partnership with TM is producing robots such as the new TM5/12/14 to enable machines to work collaboratively with people.
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CONTROL SYSTEMS, AUTOMATION + SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
Omron’s i-Automation concept encapsulates three ‘i’s to describe the key features of a smart factory: integrated; intelligent; and interactive.
in intelligence enables them to make autonomous and cooperative decisions about how to best satisfy production requirements in given circumstances. When i-Automation comes together in a smart factory, the goal is predictive innovative solutions. Omron function blocks attached to its controllers are already able to monitor the performance and condition of a manufacturing machine. Built-in diag- nostics prevent or significantly reduce the risk of un- planned shutdowns. They also enable the machine to communicate with the HMI and SCADA system about any faults and can display performance data such as uptime and throughput. From a marketing perspective, companies used to push their manufactured products into the mar- ket. Now, customers can dictate what a factory makes and what happens on a factory’s produc- tion lines. The customer can select how and what is made, the specifics of the colour, and his or her preferred accessories – and this is already happen- ing on most of our motor car assembly lines. This, said Coetzer, is what a smart factory is all about. Overall equipment effectiveness: OEE A key objective of modern smart factory technolo- gy is for companies to be aware of their production efficiency, and how smart technology might impact that production efficiency. Simply put, OEE is about analysing and improv- ing three key areas: machine performance, machine availability and product quality. This is not new; the measurement algorithms for the assessment of OEE were developed in 1988 by Seiichi Nakajima. OEE reveals the hidden costs in a manufacturing line by evaluating availability loss through planned and unplanned stops; performance loss compared to maximum possible throughput; and quality loss, through rejects or rework costs of finished prod- ucts. From the data mined by an i-Automated system, changeovers can be optimised, downtime reduced, throughput maximised and reject-rates minimised. An expensive IIoT gateway is not necessary to im- plement an OEE improvement strategy. Omron has
a controller that can help production lines to imple- ment OEE very simply. There is no need to develop complex mathematical algorithms or to analyse big data in the cloud to determine overall equipment efficiency and how to improve it. Omron’s simple OEE solution resides in its NX1 two-in-one multi-tasking controller, which provides accurate, real time motion control, along with qual- ity inspection and safety monitoring, all integrated and aligned. The NX1 gives direct access to production data, enabling OEE to be easily determined and assets to be managed in an effective way. It offers a relia- ble and all-in-one IIoT connectivity, has variable data storage, and comes with OPC-UA and SQL data- base connectivity options. Above all, it makes implementing an OEE im- provement programme very easy. To reduce quality losses, Omron offers vision inspection systems; cameras for online quality and
When i-Automation comes together in a smart factory, the goal is predictive innovative solutions.
Welcoming delegates to Omron’s recently held Innovation Con- ference at the CSIR, Victor Marques, Omron’s country General Manager for South Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, outlined some of Omron’s latest developments: Q2A series VSDs; the FQ range of smart vision systems for quality inspection; the NX1 series of machine automation controllers; the TM5/12/14 robot series be- ing developed in alliance with Techman (TM) Robotics to foster machine-human collaboration; and Forpheus, a robot designed to play ping pong against all-ability humans – it can adjust the diffi- culty of its return shot based on the predicted skill of its human opponent. “With respect to industrial automation, big data, smart factories and the IIoT,” said Marques, “we hope to focus attention on what customers really need”.
Electricity + Control
CONTROL SYSTEMS, AUTOMATION + SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
track and trace inspections. Vision solutions are ideal for applications where there is a need for repetitive and precise quality checking at high speed and on the fly, all of which is difficult for humans to do consistently. There are systems that use facial recognition-type software to monitor and record product completeness and accuracy at high speed, along with systems that can check the accuracy of labelling. The quick response of the systems quickly alerts operators to problems, so the cause can be rectified before large numbers of rejects are produced. Omron’s i-Automation portfolio of control, sens- ing and thinking technologies can already be used to create the smart connected factory that is so widely talked about, without the necessity for expensive gateways. IIoT data and other KPIs can be generat- ed and used to create key performance data, which can then be visualised and analysed. And once an issue has been identified, implementing a solution for improved OEE is often very simple, concludes Coetzer.
Omron’s FQ range of smart vision systems embeds Ethernet and EtherCAT for ease of integration into any environment and they include an incremental encoder for easy track- ing and calibration.
Peter Middle- ton is the editor of MechChem Africa.
AlgaEnergy andYokogawa sign strategic partnership and equity agreement AlgaEnergy, a Spanish biotechnology company specialising in the production and commercial applications of microalgae, and Yokogawa Electric Corporation (TOKYO: 6841), a leading provider of industrial automation, control and measurement technology, have signed a partnership and equity participation agreement. The strategic agreement involves an approximately 10 million euro in- vestment by Yokogawa to acquire newly issued shares of AlgaEn- ergy, and making the Japanese company a reference shareholder. Microalgae are a diverse group of unicellular photosynthetic micro-organisms that can thrive in a variety of aquatic habitats, such as oceans, lakes and rivers. Their rapid rate of reproduction means they can be used effectively as a biological resource. They are recognised as having great potential to contribute to a more sustainable society through applications in diverse sectors ranging from agriculture, food, and animal feed through to phar- maceuticals, cosmetics, biomaterials and, in the future, sustain- able biofuels. However, the scope of the agreement extends beyond finan- cial investment. The two companies, which share strong syn- ergies and a common vision, seek to build an industry-leading partnership in the microalgae biotechnology sector worldwide by collaborating in the areas of R&D, manufacturing, marketing, and sales. AlgaEnergy will leverage its broad knowledge and experience in the microalgae biological processes, accumulated through- out more than four decades of R&D by its scientific leader, the world-renowned microbiologist Professor Miguel Garcia Guerrero of the University of Seville. Yokogawa will provide the advanced technologies and knowhow related to automation of industrial processes that will be key for maximising quality and efficiency as production volumes increase. organisation, entry into new sectors such as food and cosmetics, and development of its promising product pipeline.
AlgaEnergy has been a pioneer in the field of microalgae bio- technology since 2007. It is currently operating a commercial pro- duction facility in the south of Spain, and, in late 2015, launched the world’s first line-up of microalgae-based bio-stimulant* prod- ucts to promote efficient crop cultivation. The entry of Yokogawa as a shareholder will enable AlgaEn- ergy to reinforce its position of international leadership, with the equity investment being used to fund a set of ambitious projects, including international expansion of its bio-stimulant product sales
United by a commitment to sustainability Augusto Rodríguez-Villa, AlgaEnergy’s president, said, “This agreement is the best possible partnership in the journey to achieve our mission to leverage the potential of microalgae world- wide. We share the same vision for the future, the belief that more sustainable development is possible and that microalgae can be a key contributor towards that objective.” Enquiries: Visit www.yokogawa.com/za
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Driving automation standards and future-proofed IIoT architectures
standard will allow companies to leverage the benefits of multi-vendor, peer-to-peer communications and control between sensors, control devices, programmable logic controllers and distributed control systems without the need for costly and time-consuming software development and cumbersome gateways and bridges. "Customers across the industrial land- scape will no longer be bound to suppliers based on the communications protocol used," said Bernhard Eschermann, CTO, ABB Industrial Automation Division and designated board member of OPC Foun- dation. "Adoption of the new standard will open up cross-industry collaboration and encourage partnerships driven by what creates the most value for customers." Enquiries: Visit www.new.abb.com/africa
establish an open standards based com- munication for Industrial IoT. In addition, ABB will take up a designated seat on the board of the OPC Foundation in 2019 to further help accelerate development of the new technology. As OPC UA over TSN is vendor neutral, customers will no longer see their efforts complicated by incompatible protocols or proprietary ecosystems. This will facilitate integration and spur innovation – an imper- ative as the Fourth Industrial Revolution ac- celerates digitalisation via the interconnec- tion of billions of smart devices worldwide. "ABB has long been a pioneer within the automation industry, developing lead- ing-edge technologies to deliver solutions to some of industry’s greatest challenges,” said PeterTerwiesch, President, ABB Indus- trial Automation Division. “That we have taken a leading role in reaching this historic milestone for open standards and interop- erability in industrial automation, which will see major dividends for both customers and suppliers alike, is further testament to our commitment, expertise and vision to unlock the full potential of Industry 4.0.” Adoption of the OPC UA over TSN
Just as HTML spurred growth of the Web, the new Open Platform Communication Unified Architecture (OPC UA) interopera- bility standard will enable industrial players to unlock the full potential of Industry 4.0. In an announcement published by the OPC Foundation, the organisation stat- ed its vision of becoming the worldwide industrial interoperability standard. This seamless IIoT communication standard, called Open Platform Communication Uni- fied Architecture will apply for all levels of industrial automation. Combined with Time Sensitive Networking (OPC UA over TSN) it will be able to replace a myriad dif- ferent fieldbus systems. Forecasting the end of disparate protocols, it will enable devices from different vendors to talk to each other – from the field level, to the controller level, all the way to the cloud. ABB is committed to supporting the industry-wide adoption of OPC UA over TSN. At the vanguard of driving interop- erability in industrial automation, ABB and B&R – the acquired and integrated solu- tions provider for machine and factory automation – have played a pivotal role in bringing together industry stakeholders to
Wireless solutions kits simplify monitoring of rotating equipment
virtually any machine with rotating motion.These kits help users to: • Identify machine performance issues caused by misalign- ment, unbalance, bearing failures, pump cavitation, blade damage, etc. • Identify equipment requiring full spectrum analysis • Establish more strategic scheduling of equipment maintenance Enquiries: BrandonTopham. Email firstname.lastname@example.org
Banner’s new Wireless Solutions Kit for vibration monitoring is a fully integrated and easy-to-use solution for monitoring assets with rotating motion. It is designed to make it easy for users of any experience level to setup a wireless network, establish per- formance baselines and thresholds, and collect data from motors, fans, pumps, compressors, and similar equipment. Key benefits Reduce downtime & increase productivity: Avoid unexpected downtime and make more informed decisions about maintenance schedules by detecting problems early, before a failure can occur. Simple setup: Plug in the box, bind the nodes through the HMI screen, install vibration sensors and nodes on the equipment, and start collecting data. Performance baselines and thresholds are automatically generated and no programming is required. Visualise data and alarms: HMI clearly displays alarms and graphs of raw vibration data along with baseline, warning, and alarm values. Local and remote monitoring: Access raw data right on the HMI or via the cloud from any network accessible location. Scalable solution: Monitor and collect data from up to 16 assets.
Applications Wireless Solutions Kits for vibration monitoring can be used with
Electricity + Control
round up CONTROL SYSTEMS, AUTOMATION + SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
Tectra Automation supplies laboratory equipment for Simera’s latest optical payload A new space telescope, for launch into low Earth orbit as part of an electro-optical pay- load for a satellite, was recently designed and assembled by Simera at its laboratory in Somerset West. To execute the ultra-pre- cise specifications required for the Simera SX1 Imager’s optical calibration, the compa- ny contracted Tectra Automation to design and supply a purpose-built assembly tower to integrate and align the telescope lenses. Requiring a sturdy, highly stable design to mitigate the effects of external vibrations when installing and aligning the lenses, the tower structure was built using the Bosch Rexroth range of heavy-duty modular al- uminium profiles and accessories. Inside the tower, a vertically translating carriage mechanismwas designed to assist with the alignment of optical elements. each of the four corners of the carriage, were used to maintain optimum position- ing control for the 30-kilogram telescope at all times in the assembly process. The pneumatic brakes were controlled by an Aventics panel whilst a linear scale with digital readout provided and accurate indi- cation of the position of the carriage. The tower was then mounted on an approximately 400 mm thick solid granite table suspended on vibration isolators to isolate the structure from any possible ex- ternal vibrations, including those emanat- ing from the nearby N2 highway. launched in July 2018. Following from the successful delivery of the optical tower for the Simera telescope, Tectra Automation has received an order to assemble an ad- ditional tower for a smaller telescope. Tec- tra Automation is a member of the Hytec Group and subsidiary of Bosch Rexroth. Enquiries: Kevin Lombard. Tel. +27 (0) 11 971 9400 or email email@example.com
“The optical tower was a critical piece of laboratory equipment in ensuring a fully integrated, optically tested and flight ready solution,” explains Rosca de Waal, mechan- ical engineer, Simera. “Its design and con- struction provided the highly accurate and smooth vertically translating carriage Sime- ra required to ensure optimum calibration of the telescope lenses.” The assembly of the flight model of the telescope was complet- ed in December 2017, and was successfully
To achieve absolute control and smooth guidance of this mechanism, Tectra Auto- mation used Bosch Rexroth ball rail sys- tem linear guides with pneumatic brakes for maximum rigidity. Four counterbalance units from Bosch Rexroth, positioned at
OPC Foundation extends OPC UA to field level
maintained so that OPC UA can share one common multi-vendor TSN network infrastructure together with other applications. This initiative integrates well with existing joint working groups engaged in ongoing companion specification e.g. description of machines. Stefan Hoppe, President of the OPC Foundation said “The benefit of membership in the OPC Foundation allows companies to actively engage and influence the direction of the OPC Foun- dation and includes early access to the specifications and tech- nology. This initiative will grow OPC UA into new markets and I highly encourage all OPC Foundation members to contact the OPC Foundation to participate”. Thomas Burke, Strategic Marketing Officer of the OPC Founda- tion, “We are very excited about the initiative to extend OPC UA including TSN down to the field level, and the number of compa- nies that want to actively participate in this initiative bringing the technology into real world products. This set of working groups will pave the way for the broadest, easiest, and fastest market adoption of OPC UA over TSN.” The OPC Foundation develops and maintains OPC UA as an open and secure communication platform comprised of an infor- mation model framework, communication models and underlying protocol bindings. As such, the OPC Foundation works non-exclu- sively with other organisations on various OPC UA related topics but continues to operate as a platform, technology, use case, and vendor agnostic standardisation body. Enquiries: Stefan Hoppe. Email firstname.lastname@example.org
The OPC Foundation launches an initiative to further enable OPC UA adoption throughout industrial automation by extending stand- ardisation and harmonisation activities for OPC UA including TSN enabled Ethernet networks The OPC Foundation has announced the launch of its new set- up to identify OPC UA and related TSN-harmonisation needs and extends OPC Foundation standards and specifications. The goal of this initiative is to deliver an open, cohesive approach to implement OPC UA including TSN and associated application profiles. This will advance the OPC Foundation providing vendor independent end-to-end interoperability into field level devices for all relevant industry automation use-cases. The OPC Foundation vi- sion of becoming the worldwide industrial interoperability standard is advanced by integrating field devices and the shop floor. A new set of working groups will identify, manage and stand- ardise the OPC UA relevant topics focused on industrial automa- tion including the following: Harmonisation and standardisation of application profiles e.g. IO, motion control, safety, system redundancy Standardisation of OPC UA information models for field level devices in offline e.g. device description and online e.g. diagnos- tics mapping of OPC UA application profiles related to real-time operations on Ethernet networks including TSN definition of certi- fication procedures. The working groups will closely align with the TSN Profile for Industrial Automation (TSN-IA-Profile) which will be standardised by the IEC/IEEE 60802 standardisation group. This will help ensure that a single, converged TSN network approach is
8 Electricity + Control
SEW drives success of ECDriveS ® at major automotive manufacturers
FEATURES: · Control systems, automation+ systems engineering · Flowmeasurement+ instrumentation
S EW-EURODRIVE South Africa has clinched its largest project to date for its ECDriveS ® drive sys- tem for light-load conveyor technology.The project is for seven conveyors and 40 accumulation zones at a major automotive manufacturer in Gauteng. The latest order follows a demonstration pro- ject involving two small conveyors, with one over a production line, to move small components around the assembly area, explains SEW Sales Representative Willem Strydom. The automotive manufacturer was so impressed with this initial foray that it has now embarked on a massive sev- en conveyor, 40 accumulation zone project. “Our main challenge was the tight timeframe of only five weeks,” Strydom explains. However, this is where the ECDriveS ® drive system really came into its own. “The client was already familiar with the product, which was a ma- jor time-saving factor in terms of the commission- ing and set-up. The fact that this could be done quickly and efficiently by the client itself was a ma- jor factor in it opting for the technology.” The ECDriveS ® drive system has extensive built-in functionality. It has 40W continuous power and up to 100W dynamic power, optimised for the typical power ranges of roller conveyors used in light-duty materials-handling technology.The name is an acronym for Electronically Commutated Drive System, a brushless DC gearmotor. “It is a simple and cost-efficient drive solution for roller-conveyor applications,” Strydom points out. It is easily integrated into existing solutions, as it features both Ethernet and PROFINET commu- nications for seamless interfacing. Other major ad- vantages are precise positioning and ramp-up and ramp-down, and the ability to vary the conveyor speed accordingly, which makes for a highly cus- tomisable system. Sensor input and output is provided for easy monitoring, with an alarm triggered in the event of any problem. The drive system has an IP 54 pro- tection rating, in addition to an IP 66 version for more demanding applications. The temperature
range is –10°C to 40°C, while the roller speed is up to 5 m/s. Gearbox speeds range from 8.5 rpm to 645 rpm for added flexibility. Set-up is either by dual in-line package (DIP) switches, or the drive system can be programmed using proprietary SEW software. Despite its sim- plicity, the drive system even boasts a built-in en- coder for accurate positioning of items whenever the conveyor is stopped, making it ideal for sorting applications. It is also highly compact, with roller lengths from 300 mm to 1 200 mm. “We have been very successful in the auto- motive industry to date, where major expansion projects indicate a growth trend until at least 2023,” Strydom reveals. SEW has even adapted its ECDriveS ® technology for another major au- tomotive manufacturer, which has also standard- ised on SEW products at all of its South African manufacturing facilities. “What we developed was essentially roller conveyors to convey tyres to the assembly bay,” Strydom elaborates. Another product being used increasingly in con- junction with the ECDriveS ® drive system is SEW’s Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV) system, Strydom highlights. The complete solution includes the in- dividual vehicles, energy supply, WLAN commu- nication, and navigation and vehicle coordination. The MOVITRANS ® line cable laid in the floor ena- bles contactless energy transfer, which means it
Enquiries: Jana Klut. Email email@example.com
Willem Strydom, SEW Sales Representative
is wear-free and low-maintenance. “We are very fortunate in that the automotive industry is in a major growth phase at present, which means a lot of manufactur- ing facilities are either being refur- bished or updated with the latest technology. This ties in well with SEW’s own research and devel- opment drive, as we believe that innovation is essential to retain our market-leading position,” Strydom concludes.
Electricity + Control
FLOW MEASUREMENT + INSTRUMENTATION
Mass flow measurement and the relevance of Coriolis technology
Ashley Buck, Siemens
Direct mass flow measurement is an important development across industry and processes as it eliminates inaccuracies caused by the physical properties of the fluid, not least being the difference between mass and volumetric flow.
1. Direct mass flow meas- urement eliminates in- accuracies caused by the physical properties of the fluid. 2. Mass is not affected by changing temperature and pressure. 3. Volumetric measuring devices are unable to distinguish temperature or pressure changes. 1
M ass flow measurement can be linked to asset management, keeping fluid in motion or even simple tank balancing. Some applications, however, require the ability to conduct accurate flow measurements to such an extent that they influence product quality, health and safety, and ultimately can mean the difference between making a profit or running at a loss. In other cases, the inaccurate measurement of flow, or even the failure to take such measure- ments, can cause serious or even disastrous re- sults. With most liquid and gas flow measurement instruments, the flow rate is determined inferen- tially by measuring the fluids velocity or the change in kinetic energy. Velocity depends on the pres- sure differential that is forcing the fluid through a pipe or conduit. Because the pipe’s cross-sectional area is known and remains constant, the average velocity is an indication of the flow rate. The basic relationship for determining the liquid’s flow rate in such cases is:
Other factors that affect liquid flow rate include the liquid’s viscosity and density, and the friction of the liquid in contact with the pipe. With the many variations of flowmeter technol- ogy available it can be very hard for an operator to make a decision on which technology is right for the application. Industry experts claim that a ma- jority of flowmeters in the field are selected incor- rectly. An important and perhaps overlooked ques- tion regards what the instrument is supposed to do versus what it is able to do? When selecting a flowmeter technological improvements can some- times get overlooked through historical knowledge of what has been possible in the past – in a way, experience working against you. Direct mass flow measurement is an impor- tant development across industry as it eliminates inaccuracies caused by the physical properties of the fluid, not least being the difference between mass and volumetric flow. Mass is not affected by changing temperature and pressure. This alone makes it an important method of fluid flow meas- urement. Volumetric flow remains valid, in terms of accuracy, provided the process conditions and calibration reference conditions are adhered to. Volumetric measuring devices, such as variable area meters and turbine flow meters, are unable to distinguish temperature or pressure changes.
Q =V x A
Where Q = fluid flow through the pipe V = average velocity of the flow A = cross-sectional area of the pipe
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FLOW MEASUREMENT + INSTRUMENTATION
achieved by moving the vessel to the next dosing point in line and repeating the process. The alter- native solution of simultaneous mass flow dosing/ filling significantly reduces the amount of time needed, and the loss of volatiles, whilst increasing productivity, quality and repeatability. An example of process improvement has been seen within the field of specialist chemicals. The customer, in this case, was unaware that low to ultra-low flow control was possible with a Coriolis instrument, resulting in the raw ingredient being mixed with water to create a carrier volume. This higher volume was then metered and dosed into the main product flow. The process added cost to the production method and, as the dilution step added variability to the concentration of the addi- tive, product quality was often compromised with a resulting additional cost of re-work. Furthermore, the final process step saw the bulk material being heated and stirred to evaporate the added water to reduce volume and increase concentration. The en- ergy requirement to do so was significant and the operational stock-holding was high. Further compli- cations were added by the need for the ‘dosing sys- tem’ to handle multiple additive doses with strin- gent cleaning needed between batches, resulting in even more wastage and high additional costs. By understanding the extended capabilities of Coriolis instruments it was possible to establish that the concentrated raw ingredient could be added via a highly accurate low flow Coriolis flow meter directly coupled and controlling a precision pump. This solution ensured that the costly addi- tion and removal of the water could be eliminat- ed and that very close tolerances on the dosage rate, and hence final product quality, could be maintained. The inclusion of multiple synchronous injection points eliminated the costly clean-down process and the reduction of working process volume also reduced the stock holding inventory, further reducing operational costs. Re-producible product quality has been increased, productivity has been increased, wastage has been reduced, energy consumption has been reduced and oper- ational costs have also been dramatically reduced. Although currently configured for control via the client DCS the Coriolis flowmeter can, if needed, be ‘paired’ with the main process line flow meter to act
One method of mass flow measurement em- ploys the phenomenon of Coriolis force. This force is a deflection of moving objects when they are viewed in a rotating reference frame. Coriolis force is proportional to the rotation rate and the centrifugal force is proportional to its square. This long under- stood principle occurs all around us in the physical world; the flow of water down the sink, the Earth’s rotation and its effect on the weather. The principle, and mathematical formula developed back in the 1800s was further developed during the 1970s and then applied to the measurement of fluid flow. The operating principle is basic but very effective. A tube, or tubes, with a known mass is ener- gised by a fixed vibration. When a fluid passes through the tube(s) the mass will change, the tube(s) will twist and the inlet and outlet sections will result in a phase shift. This phase shift can be measured and a linear output derived proportional to flow. As this principle simply measures whatev- er is within the tube it can be directly applied to any fluid flowing through it, liquid or gas. Furthermore, parallel with the phase shift in frequency between inlet and outlet, it is also possible to measure the actual change in frequency.This change in frequen- cy is in direct proportion to the density of the fluid ― and a further signal output can be derived. Having measured both the mass flow rate and the density it is possible to derive the volume flow rate. The Coriolis principle, applied as a mass flow meter, therefore has its place within fluid meas- urement and control within the traditional Process Industry. Perhaps more importantly though, the additional features of the technology allow for an extension of the accuracy and precision into other, more non-traditional, applications. Take, for example, filling and dosing applica- tions across a great many industries and the re- placement of both weighing scales and the gravi- metric method. Traditionally, the dosage of mass/ volume was achieved by using a shut-off valve with a weighing scale/balance. The weighing scale is located under a valve outlet nozzle and, after a zeroing procedure once the vessel being filled is in position, the valve will open. The weighing scale will send a signal to the PLC or control unit and, once the batch has been reached, the valve will close. Multiple dosing, building up a recipe, is
The inaccurate measurement of flow, or even the failure to take such measurements, can cause serious or even disastrous results.
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FLOW MEASUREMENT + INSTRUMENTATION
injection is actually changing the flow rate. This can only be done manually by changing the stroke length of the piston – a process that is 'trial and error' and only verifiable using a graduated gauge. Fine tuning of injection rates, for example to com- pensate for day/night changes in temperature across a field, is virtually impossible as the labour required to do so is prohibitive. This results in the injection rate being set for worst case, thereby re- sulting in overdosing during normal conditions – a very expensive waste. Modern communications networks allow for technology to arrive at diffuse production fields. The Coriolis flow system can be installed at each injection point and real-time monitoring, control and logging of injection rates can be achieved. This allows for remote checking of flow rates, remote instantaneous re-setting of those flow rates, on- board auto-alarm for status checking (for example, empty tank alarm and pump protection shut down), density change alarm, single point totalisation, mul- ti-point (total field) totalisation for cost per barrel cal- culations and pump steering signal monitoring as a guide to preventative maintenance. In short, a very powerful tool within field management. With these applications it can be seen that Co- riolis FlowTechnology can be a benefit to the user especially when the extended product capabilities are employed. Process improvement, cost reduc- tion, real-time measurement and greater accuracy can all be achieved.
in master/slave mode. Standard on-board firmware can be utilised to immediately match the required dosage rate to any variability within the main flow line. This facility eliminates any time lag in process response and further enhances the very tight toler- ances on product quality. A host of secondary ben- efits have also been utilised within the solution. The density of the concentrated natural raw ingredient is measured, recorded and trended, thereby allowing tracking of the natural innate variability and further fine-tuning of the control process. The pump steer- ing signal is utilised for condition monitoring and as a preventative maintenance tool. This, together with dry-running protection, will ensure less emergency break-down and catastrophic down-time. A further example illustrating where Coriolis flow technology can benefit the customer has been seen with the dosing of performance chem- icals within the Oil & Gas Industry. The tradition- al method of chemical injection, a piston pump with check valves on the inlet and outlet, is tried and tested and works well for quite long periods of time. However, on occasion the check valves can foul and begin to ‘pass’. Also, out-gassing or entrained air can cause an air-lock within the pis- ton chamber that is simply compressed/decom- pressed in situ rather than pumped. In each of these cases the pump appears to still be working but there is no actual transfer of chemical into the pipeline. The only way to verify actual flow has been via a graduated gauge and a stop-watch; an empirical measurement but time consuming. Another issue with the traditional method of
Author: Ashley Buck is a Business Devel- opment Manager South PI at Siemens.
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FLOW MEASUREMENT + INSTRUMENTATION round up
Engineered for simplicity and reliability
Transducer innovations by Knick Smooth-running services as well as passenger and employee safety in railway operations depend on functions such as emergency shut- down in the event of short circuits, detection of delayed po-tentials, and safe signal transmission. Therefore, transducers for railway applications must meet the highest standards of reliability and precision. For Knick Elektronische Messgeräte, this has been the cornerstone in the development and manu-facturing of highly available transducers and signal conditioners over several decades. The in-strumentation manufac- turer based in Berlin, Germany, has been supplying the international rail- way industry with products for high-voltage applications for over 40 years. At the 2018 InnoTrans exhibition in Berlin, Knick has showcased its proven transducers for trac-tion power substations as well as new prod- ucts for use on rolling stock: the SIL-2-compliant P16000 pulse frequen- cy conditioner converts pulse signals from speed encoders into galvani- cally isolated analogue 0/4…20 mA or 0…10 V standard signals required by control systems and subsys-tems to detect the travel speed. The transducer's signal input is designed according to the SIL 2 safe- ty integrity level to ensure that there can be no inadvertent impact on the signal source. The ability to separate the encoder signal and make it available for other applications eliminates the need to install addition- al en-coders on vehicle axles. Another highlight is the new ProLine P 50000 transducer series for high-precision energy measurement ac- cording to EN 50463. This series enables current and voltage measurement in traction inverters and auxiliary convert-ers, and short-circuit detection in pro- tective devices. These are the only devices in their class featuring cali- brated range selection, which enables high flexibility in selecting input voltages in the ±4200 V range or currents in the kA range. After range selection, the transducers meet the high specified accuracy without renewed calibration. As the latest addition to the P 50000 series, Knick will present the P 52000 VPD voltage detector for reliable detection of voltages up to 4200 V. The detector compares the input signal with a selected threshold value that can be set at the unit. If, irrespective of positive or negative polarity, the threshold is breached, the detector displays an optical alert and generates an output signal that can activate or control hardware relays, pro-tective devices, or controllers. The signal level is matched to type 1 PLC signal inputs according to EN 6131-2. All products are fully compliant with applicable railway standards and comply with demanding requirements regarding fire protection (HL3 according to EN 45545-2 ), electri-cal safety, mechanical robustness, high resilience to extreme climatic conditions and low EMI sus-ceptibility. Enquiries: Mecosa.Tel. +27 (0) 11 257 6100 or email firstname.lastname@example.org
Suitable for a wide range applications such as time control, position indication, control of rotation speed and batch counting, the Hengstler Tico 772 multifunc- tional counter is extremely easy to use. Available from Countapulse Controls, this electronic preset counter has been engineered for simplicity as well as reliable operation and allows use by more than one individual. The robust housing incorporates an easy-to-read display with large digits (48 mm x 48 mm in size) as well as four large buttons to facilitate adjustment of all configurations. The counter is easy to programme and has three presets. This simplification of handling also extends to the installation of the unit which is via plug- gable terminals. The Hengstler Tico 772 is suitable for use in ambient temperatures up to 50°C and is ingress protected to IP 65 and is both shock and vibration resistant. Input frequency is up to 60 kHz and signal times are program- mable for up to 10 minutes. Countapulse Controls is a leading southern African supplier of sensing, measurement, counting, switch- ing, monitoring and positioning instrumentation. Enquiries: Gerry Bryant.Tel. +27 (0) 11 615 7556 or email email@example.com
Electricity + Control
FLOW MEASUREMENT + INSTRUMENTATION
New process transmitter fromWIKA
Roxar 2600 multiphase flow meters
With its 4 ... 20 mA, 4 ... 20 mA HART ® , PROFIBUS ® PA or FOUNDATION Fieldbus™
The Roxar 2600 Multiphase Flow Meters (MPFM) ac- curately characterise flow regimes and provide critical information on a well’s production capabilities. Built on a scalable technology platform, the advanced meter’s signal processing and field electronics provide sensitive measurements and a comprehensive mapping of flow. Employing this modular meter will improve production optimisation, flow assurance and well testing, while meeting all field conditions and cost requirements. Enquiries: Visit www.emerson.com
output signals, combined with either intrinsic safety or flame- proof enclosure ignition protec- tion type (in accordance with ATEX and IECEx), the Model CPT-2x is ide- ally suited to applications with the highest demands on measurement technology.
Robust and highly accurate The capacitive ceramic measuring
Versatile flowmeter with detection of wet steam conditions
cell delivers especially accurate measured val- ues, particularly with small measuring ranges. As a result of the special sealing concept, op- eration in almost all industries and applications is possible without difficulties. Easy configuration and operation Service and configuration at the instrument is carried out using the optional display and op- erating module, which can be fitted in four po- sitions. The operating menu has a simple and self-explanatory structure and has thirteen se- lectable languages as standard. Alternatively, the operating parameters can be set using the PACTware™ free and non- proprietary configuration software. An instru- ment-specific DTM enables easy integration into corresponding process control systems. Enquiries:WIKA Instuments. Tel. +27 (0) 11 621 0000 or email firstname.lastname@example.org Turck is expanding its range of ultrasonic sensors with the RU50 Eco series for price sensitive OEM projects. The company was able to develop an ultrasonic sensor based on the latest sonic transducer technology, which does not make any compromises in quality in spite of its economy-based design. The devices in the plastic threaded barrel are made of highly resistant liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and the translucent end caps with an M12 connector output from Ultem. Both plastics have already proved their strength over long periods of use in other Turck products. The RU50 Eco sensor series is available with a switch
The OPTIFLUX 1050 is a cost-effective electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF) with lightweight wafer-style design. The meter is a very economical solution for sim- ple applications with conductive liquids ( ≥ 5 μS/cm) involving low solid content (up to 10%). This particularly includes applications in water, wastewater, mobile applications, agriculture or firefighting where extremely high accuracy, extensive diagnostics or a wide range of communication options are not a priority. The ex- tra isolation of the electronic device and housing also makes this EMF suitable
for use in areas with extreme humidity. The OPTIFLUX 1050 features a reinforced PFA liner and Hastelloy ® electrodes that guarantee excellent chemical resist- ance and a large temperature range (up to +120°C / +248°F). The EMF has no internal moving parts, does not require maintenance and is insensitive to vibra- tions. It comes with current output (incl. HART ® ) or ac- tive pulse/frequency output and Modbus. A full on-site verification of the EMF without process interruption can be carried out using the OPTICHECK service tool. Enquiries: Deon Rampathi.Tel. +27 (0) 11 314 1391 or email email@example.com
Ultrasonic sensors for the OEM business
output as well as with an analog voltage or current output signal. The customer can choose here between a variant with an M12 connector output and a variant with a cable output. Retro-reflective sensors are available for conveyor belt applications. These can be taught to switch at a fixed distance from a reference object and relia- bly detect all objects between the sensor and the reference point. The translucent end cap also offers the benefit that the switch state of the sensor can be clearly detected from virtually any angle. Enquiries: BrandonTopham. Email firstname.lastname@example.org